>> Discovering Psychology by Don Hockenbury, Sandra E Hockenbury (6th Edition)


Chapter 4: Consciousness and Its Variations


  1. The Definition of Consciousness and Characteristics of Attention
    • Consciousness- is the quick attention to the external world and of one’s mental activity and internal feelings.
    • Attention is the ability to concentrate to a specific stimuli. Its characteristics are:
      1. has a restricted capacity
      2. Selective
      3. Can be obstructed by inattentional blindness, misdirection, inattentional deafness, and change blindness
      4. Multi-tasking focuses on 2 or more sources of stimuli at the same time

  2. The Regulation of Circadian Rhythms to Consciousness
    • Circadian rhythm- lasts 24 hours a day; its biological and psychological processes change everyday
    • Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)- group of neurons that moderate the circadian rhythm
      1. Sunlight helps moderate the sleep-wake cycle by triggering the production of melatonin by the SCN when the sun sets. Melatonin increases when the sun sets, making you feel sleepy. Melatonin decreases when the sun rises.
    • Intrinsic circadian rhythm- sets in with the absence of environmental time signals.

  3. The Internal Processes That Happens During Sleep
    • Electroencephalograph- invented by Hans Berger and is used to determine the brain’s rhythmic electrical patterns, known as brain waves. It generates a record, known as electroencephalogram or EEG.
    • 2 forms of sleep:
      1. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep- related with high brain activity where dream normally happens
      2. non-rapid-eye -movement (NREM) sleep- body and brain activity calms down during this condition.
    • Brainwave patterns on the onset of sleep
      1. Beta brain waves- related with alertness as you get ready for bed
      2. Alpha brain waves- related with drowsiness
      3. Hypnagogic hallucinations- condition that happens during the start of sleep.
        1. Myoclonic jerk- an involuntary body movement that shakes anyone awake
    • The initial 4 stages of NREM sleep
      1. Stage 1 NREM- theta brain waves slowly takes over the drowsiness generated by the alpha brain waves.
      2. Stage 2 NREM- the start of real sleep which is manifests sleep bundles, short bursts of brain activity.
      3. Stage 3 NREM- delta brain waves compose over 20% of brain activity.
      4. Stage 4 NREM- delta brain waves surpass 50% of brain activity.
    • REM Sleep- during this state, there is more brain activity, producing smaller and quicker brain waves. Dreams normally happens at this time.
    • All through the night, five 90-minute cycles of REM AND NREM sleep happen. REM sleep lasts longer as sleep develops.
    • The sleep patterns at different life stages
      1. Newborns sleep an estimated 16 hours daily
      2. By age 2, a 75-minute sleep cycle sets in
      3. By age 5, a 90-minute sleep cycle is initiated
      4. Adults spent less REM sleep
    • Evolutionary adaptation- asserts that various sleep patterns changed as a method of energy preservation and protection from encountering hazardous environment.
    • Outcomes of sleep deprivation
      • Microsleeps- refer to sleep episodes that only last a few seconds during wakefulness
      • Sleep restriction -generates many changes, such as heightened desire to sleep. Concentration and motor skills are reduced.
      • REM rebound- a condition in which an individual is devoid of REM sleep extremely rises the time exhausted in REM sleep.

  4. The Meaning and Significance of Dream
    • Dream- a series of perceptions and feelings encountered as real events during REM sleep.
      1. Sleep thinking- happens during the NREM sleep and compose of unclear accounts of life events.
    • New episodic memories are made during the NREM slow-wave sleep. New procedural memories are created during the REM and NREM stage 2 sleep.
    • Nightmare- is a clear and anxious dream that often wakes ups the sleeper. They are related with daily stress, worry, and emotional problems.
    • Sigmund Freud asserted that dreams are results of subdued desires and wishes. He determined 2 components of dreams:
      1. manifest content- the actual images of the dream
      2. Latent content- the concealed psychological relevance of the dream
    • Activation-synthesis model of dreaming - authored by J. Allan and Robert McCarley which described dream as one’s subjective awareness of the messages produced by the brain during sleep.
    • Neurocognitive model of dreaming- highlights the progress of waking and dreaming perception.

  5. The Different Forms of Sleep Disorders
    • Dyssomnias- refers to obstructions in the time and quality of sleep.
      1. Insomnia- is the difficulty of falling asleep
      2. Obstructive sleep apnea- occurs when the airway is obstructed resulting to short breathing pauses.
      3. Narcolepsy- involves uncontrollable sleepiness
    • Parasomnias- relates to unpleasant physical responses while sleeping
      1. Sleep terrors- characterized by heightened physiological arousal, like uneasiness
      2. Sleepsex- experienes sexual behaviors while sleeping
      3. Sleepwalking- walking during sleep
      4. Sleep-related eating disorder- eating without memories of it the following day
      5. REM sleep behavior disorder- physically and verbally reacting to the dream while sleeping.

  6. The Characteristics, Effects, and Limitations of Hypnosis
    • Hypnosis- a state where the participant submits to the hypnotist’s suggestions.
    • Effects of hypnosis
      1. Sensory and perception changes, like interim deafness, hallucinations, and blindness
      2. Posthypnotic suggestion- the hypnotic participant will perform the particular suggestion following the hypnotic session.
      3. Memory alters, like posthypnotic amnesia, which makes the participants forget particular events that happened prior or during the session.
    • Ernest Hilgard asserted that a person under hypnosis undergoes dissociation, the condition where consciousness is divided into simultaneous channels of mental activity. In his neodissociation theory of hypnosis, a person under hypnosis encounters one channel of mental activity that submits with the suggestions made by the hypnotist.
    • Limitations of hypnosis
      1. A person can’t be hypnotized unwillingly
      2. Hypnosis can’t allow people to do actions that contradict their values
      3. Hypnosis can’t provide you new capabilities or give more physical strength that what you usually have.

  7. The Techniques and Effects of Meditation
    • Meditation- pertains to techniques that trigger a focused state of mind and awareness.
    • Techniques of meditation
      1. Focused attention technique- uses a mantra, a phrase that must be repeated in the mind, or object to help focus awareness
      2. Open monitoring technique- uses real-life experience to meditate
    • Effects of meditation
      1. Enhances emotional stability,concentration, memory, and attention
      2. Relieves stress and physiological arousal

  8. The Categories and Effects of Psychoactive Drugs
    • Psychoactive drugs- changes behavior, thinking, and perceptions.
    • Effects of drugs
      1. Addiction- a compelling feeling to take a particular drug
      2. Withdrawal symptoms- a negative physical response to the absence of drug intake
        1. Drug rebound effect- a condition which manifests the opposite reaction of drug intake
      3. Changes bodily systems
      4. Constant drug use generates long-term effects to the brain
    • Depressants- suppress brain activity
      1. Alcohol- relieves tension; highest social expense; generates mild euphoria; withdrawal symptoms include anxiety and slight shakes
      2. Inhalants- chemical properties that generate a change in consciousness when inhaled; high intake leads to hallucinations, and brain damage.
      3. Barbiturates- relieves anxiety and enhance sleep; low dosage causes relaxation; high dosage results coordination loss
      4. Tranquilizers- reduces anxiety
    • Opiates- reduces pain and generate euphoric sensations
      1. Natural opiates- opium, morphine, codeine
      2. Artificial opiates- heroin, methadone,oxycodone, and painkillers
    • Stimulants- exhilarates brain activity
      1. Caffeine, like coffee and tea, encourages wakefulness; high intake results to fast heart beat
      2. Nicotine, as found in cigarettes, improves mental alertness
      3. Amphetamine- reduces appetite
      4. Cocaine- high intake results to psychological disorders
      5. Methamphetamine- can result to brain damage
    • Psychedelic drugs- changes sensory perceptions and moods
      1. Mescaline- produced from the peyote cactus
      2. LSD- a chemically produced psychedelic drug
      3. Marijuana- causes mild euphoria
    • Club drugs- available at dance parties and clubs
      1. Ecstasy- produces slight psychedelic effects
      2. Dissociative anesthetics
    • Phencyclidine (PCP)-  causes feeling of too much strength
    • Ketamine (Special K)- generate emotions of depersonalization.