>> Discovering Psychology by Don Hockenbury, Sandra E Hockenbury (6th Edition)


Chapter 13: Psychological Disorders


  1. The Study of Mental Disorders
    • Psychopathology- studies the sources, symptoms, and progress of psychological disorders
    • Psychological disorder or mental disorder- formats of behavioral and psychological manifestations that result to personal distress and abnormal functions.
    • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR)-  a textbook that elaborates over 3000 mental disorders.
    • National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R)- determined lifetime and yearly prominence of psychological disorders in common population.

  2. The Different Types of Anxiety Disorders
    • Anxiety disorders- is diagnosed with disruptive daily activities, tempers, and thought processes, also known as maladaptive.
    • Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)- characterized by global, chronic, and immoderate anxiety.
      1. Caused by genetics, troublesome relationships, and stressful encounters. Symptoms emerge at an early age.
    • Panic attack- instant episode of great anxiety that quickly intensifies.
      1. Panic disorder- suffered when panic attacks are experienced repeatedly and unexpectedly.
      2. Catastrophic cognition theory- asserts that persons with panic disorder aren’t only hypersensitive to physical arousal, but also inclined to catastrophize their experiences.
    • Phobia- is a constant and illogical fear of a particular item, circumstance, or activity.
      1. Specific phobia- fear of a particular item or circumstance
      2. Social phobia- paralyzed fear of social events, especially if the event involves performing infront of other people.
        1. Taijin kyofusho- affects Japanese men which refers to the fear of offending other people with their appearance, or facial expressions.
    • Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)- is an enduring anxiety disorder that progress in reaction to great physical or mental trauma.
    • Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)- is an anxiety disorder suffered by people who are dominated by obsessions and compulsions
      1. Obsessions- are monotonous, invasive, uncontrollable ideas or mental images that give distress and extreme anxiety to the person suffering from it.
      2. Compulsion- is a monotonous behavior that drives a person to act.
      3. An insufficiency in norepinephrine and serotonin has been linked to OCD.

  3. The Types and Causes of Mood Disorders
    • Mood disorder- refers to a serious, constant disturbance in the patient’s emotions that results to mental discomfort, function impairment, or both.
    • Major depression- is often termed as the “common cold” of mental disorders due to its prevalence.
      1. its symptoms include: Pessimism, prevalent negativity, abnormal sleep patterns.
      2. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)-  symptoms of depression that intensify at a particular season, mostly in autumn and winter.
      3. Dysthymic disorder- a less extreme type of depression which functions are not seriously damaged
    • Bipolar disorder- abnormal temperaments at extreme ends of the emotional spectrum. It is previously known as manic depression.
      1. Mostly, people with this mental disorder feel extreme mood swings.
      2. Instances of disabling depression take turns with brief euphoria.
      3. People are described to be euphoric during a manic episode
      4. Cyclothymic disorder- a less severe type of bipolar disorder. It is described as a repetitive, unforeseen mood swings.
    • Mood disorders are developed by:
      1. Inheritance of a genetic predisposition making some people more susceptible to mood disorders.
      2. Disturbance in brain chemistry
      3. The availability of a neurotransmitter known as glutamate, which functions as an excitatory neurotransmitter, may be involved in bipolar disorder
      4. Stress may result to major depression

  4. The Types and Causes of Eating Disorders
    • Eating disorders- are acute, maladaptive disruptions in eating habits.
    • Anorexia nervosa- is defined by 4 main features
      1. unwilling to keep a normal body weight
      2. Fear of becoming fat or obtaining more weight, despite being horribly thin
      3. Inaccurate view of body size
      4. Rejects the severity of weight loss
    • Bulimia nervosa- repeated instances of uncontrollable binge eating.
      1. Purges food out from the body through self-induced vomiting or use of laxatives
    • Eating disorders are developed by:
      1. Reduced brain activity of the serotonin neurotransmitter
      2. Interrupted brain chemistry
      3. Chemical imbalances
      4. Patterns of family interplay
      5. Modern Western cultural attitudes toward dieting and slimness.

  5. The Features of Different Personality Disorders
    • Personality disorder- has inflexible, maladaptive personality characteristics while behavior deviate from a normal person.
    • Antisocial personality disorder- has the capacity to lie, defraud, and put other people in danger. A person with this disorder lacks guilt or conscience
      1. Also known as a psychopath or sociopath
      2. Its main feature is the pattern of open rejection and violation of others’ rights
      3. Deception and manipulation are other features of this disorder
    • Borderline personality disorder (BPD)- is featured by impulsiveness and severely unstable feelings, relationships, and self-image.
      1. People with BPD have unforeseen extreme mood swings
      2. Deep sorrow and emptiness are manifested in self-destructive action.
      3. BPD is deemed as the most severe and incapacitating of the personality disorders due to its relation to depression, eating disorders, and drug abuse.
      4. Interruption in attachment connections in early childhood cause BPD.

  6. The Types of Dissociative Disorders
    • Dissociative disorders- severe dissociative experiences that interrupt the normal association of consciousness, memory, and individual identity
    • Dissociative amnesia- pertains to the fragmentary or total inability to remember significant memories that is not caused by any medical condition.
      1. Dissociative fugue- refers to the confusion of identity and possession of extensive  amnesia
      2. All are linked with traumatic situations
    • Dissociative identity disorder (DID)- previously known as multiple personality disorder. It includes extensive memory interruptions for personal memory along with the existence of more than 2 unique identities.
      1. High rate of DID patients have encountered severe physical or sexual abuse while they are young.
      2. It serves as a serious type of dissociative coping

  7. The Symptoms and Causes of Schizophrenia
    • Schizophrenia- refers to serious twisted beliefs, views, and thought processes.
    • Positive symptoms- manifest a redundant or contortion of normal functioning
      1. Delusions- are flawed beliefs
      2. Hallucinations- are flawed or twisted views
      3. Chaotic thought processes, behavior, and speech
    • Negative symptoms- manifest a lack or decrease of normal functions, including a large lack of motivation, emotional expressiveness, or speech.
      1. Flat affect or affective flattening- dramatic decrease in emotional responsiveness
      2. Alogia- largely decreased generation of speech
      3. Avolition- incapacity to start or endure in even simple types of goal-directed actions, such as bathing, changing clothes, or participating in social activities.
    • Forms of schizophrenia
      1. Paranoid type- existence of hallucinations and delusions
      2. Catatonic type- noted by highly twisted actions or motions.
        1. Waxy flexibility- the capacity to mold into any position
      3. Disorganized type- characterized by seriously unruly behavior, disorganized speech, and flat affect
      4. Undifferentiated type- doesn’t fit to any of the 3 above mentioned criteria
    • Implicated factors in the progress of schizophrenia
      1. schizophrenia has the tendency to congregate in particular families
      2. older fathers often carries the genetic mutations that result to this mental disorder
      3. Viral infection theory- this mental disorder may be due to an exposure of the patient to an influenza virus during prenatal progres or quickly after conception.
      4. findings show that schizophrenia patients have large ventricles in the brain
      5. unrestrained activity of neurotransmitter dopamine links to schizophrenia
      6. Dysfunctional parenting, troubled family communication styles, and guilt-laden parental styles contribute to schizophrenia